Commitment and Contingencies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|Commitments and Contingencies Disclosure [Abstract]
|Commitments and Contingencies
25. Commitments and Contingencies
Servicing of Mortgage Loans
The Company has contracted with third party providers to perform specified servicing functions on its behalf. These services include maintaining borrower contact, facilitating borrower advances, generating borrower statements, collecting and processing payments of interest and principal, and facilitating loss-mitigation strategies in an attempt to keep defaulted borrowers in their homes. The contracts are generally fixed-term arrangements, with standard notification and transition terms governing termination of such contracts.
For reverse mortgages, defaults on loans leading to foreclosures may occur if borrowers fail to meet maintenance obligations, such as payment of taxes or home insurance premiums. When a default cannot be cured, the sub-servicers manage the foreclosure process and the filing of any insurance claims with HUD. The sub-servicers have responsibility for remitting timely advances and statements to borrowers and timely and accurate claims to HUD, including compliance with local, state and federal regulatory requirements. Although the Company has outsourced its servicing function, as the issuer, the Company has responsibility for all aspects of servicing of the HECM loans and related HMBS beneficial interests under the terms of the servicing contracts, state laws and regulations.
Additionally, the sub-servicers are responsible for remitting payments to investors, including interest accrued, interest shortfalls and funding advances such as taxes and home insurance premiums. Advances are typically remitted by the Company to the sub-servicers on a daily basis.
Contractual sub-servicing fees related to sub-servicer arrangements are generally based on a fixed dollar amount per loan and are included in general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company is required to fund further borrower advances (where the borrower has not fully drawn down the HECM, non-agency reverse mortgage, fix & flip, or agricultural loan proceeds available) and fund the payment of the borrower's obligation to pay FHA monthly insurance premiums for HECM loans.
The outstanding unfunded commitments available to borrowers related to agency and non-agency reverse mortgage loans were approximately $3.1 billion as of December 31, 2022 compared to $2.6 billion as of December 31, 2021. The outstanding unfunded commitments available to borrowers related to fix & flip loans were approximately $128.9 million and $94.9 million as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. This additional
borrowing capacity is primarily in the form of undrawn lines of credit. The outstanding unfunded commitments available to borrowers related to agricultural loans were approximately $26.7 million and $78.5 million as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
The Company also has commitments to purchase and sell loans totaling $1.7 million and $133.6 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2022, compared to $178.6 million and $0, respectively, as of December 31, 2021.
Mandatory Repurchase Obligation
The Company is required to repurchase reverse loans out of the Ginnie Mae securitization pools once the outstanding principal balance of the related HECM is equal to or greater than 98% of the MCA. Performing repurchased loans are conveyed to HUD and nonperforming repurchased loans are generally liquidated in accordance with program requirements. Loans are considered nonperforming upon events including, but not limited to, the death of the mortgagor, the mortgagor no longer occupying the property as their principal residence, or the property taxes or insurance are not being paid.
As an issuer of HMBS, the Company also has the option to repurchase reverse loans out of the Ginnie Mae securitization pools without prior approval from Ginnie Mae in certain instances. These situations include the borrower requesting an additional advance that causes the outstanding principal balance to be equal to or greater than 98% of the MCA; the borrower’s loan becoming due and payable under certain circumstances; the borrower not occupying the home for greater than twelve consecutive months for physical or mental illness, and the home is not the residence of another borrower; or the borrower failing to perform in accordance with the terms of the loan.
For each HECM loan that the Company securitizes into Agency HMBS, the Company is required to covenant and warrant to Ginnie Mae, among other things, that the HECM loans related to each participation included in the Agency HMBS are eligible under the requirements of the National Housing Act and the Ginnie Mae MBS Guide, and that the Company will take all actions necessary to ensure the HECM loan's continued eligibility. The Ginnie Mae HMBS program requires that the Company removes the participation related to any HECM loan that does not meet the requirements of the Ginnie Mae MBS Guide. In addition to securitizing HECM loans into Agency HMBS, the Company may sell HECM loans to third parties, and the agreements with such third parties include standard representations and warranties related to such loans, which if breached, may require the Company to repurchase the HECM loan and/or indemnify the purchaser for losses related to such HECM loans. In the case where the Company repurchases the loan, the Company bears any subsequent credit loss on the loan. To the extent that the Company is required to remove a loan from an Agency HMBS, purchase a loan from a third party or indemnify a third party, the potential losses suffered by the Company may be reduced by any recourse the Company has to the originating broker and/or correspondent lender, if applicable, to the extent such entity breached similar or other representations and warranties. Under most circumstances, the Company has the right to require the originating broker/correspondent to repurchase the related loan from the Company and/or indemnify the Company for losses incurred. The Company seeks to manage the risk of repurchase and associated credit exposure through the Company's underwriting and quality assurance practices.